How go "and, also" + "now, already" link to denote "even"? i don"t understand how combining the notions the "and, also" + "now, already" have the right to yield "even". Wiktionary:



Short answer:

Etiam gets much of its definition from et (i.e, together a conjunction and in various other respects), but it likewise gets that emphatic (as well together temporal) an interpretation from iam. This is constant with the Cambridge Dictionary meaning of even i m sorry asserts the it is "used come emphasize a comparison".

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Long answer:

Etiam is comparable to et in its usage as a conjunction as well as in having actually a somewhat overlapping meaning. Keep in mind that Lewis" An primary school Dictionary includes the definition even in its meaning for et:

et — I. Adv., adding to a truth or thought, also, too, besides, moreover, likewise, together well, even...

In part cases, et has also been provided by part authors in methods that might be interchangeable through etiam, together Gildersleeve notes:

Instead the etiam, et is sometimes in PLAUTUS, in a adjust of person. CICERO offers it additionally after an adversative conjunction, as vērum et; also after nam and also simul; an ext often when a pronoun follows, together et ille, et ipse. CAESAR never uses the so, SALLUST rarely, yet it becomes typical from Livy on. (Gildersleeve"s grammar, p. 302)

Although etiam is sometimes used in a temporal sense (when it way still, even now, etc.), its definition seems to likewise take top top new definition in that composition as et + iam more as a matter of focus rather than one of time. The is, the adds something brand-new and in ~ the exact same time emphasizes it, together if to say, "Now take note of this," or schematically, "A, B and currently even C..."

The emphatic force of etiam has actually been noted by a number of grammarians. For example, Lewis and also Short:

To annex a much more important idea, and even, nay, even...

Allen and Greenough"s Grammar:

Etiam (et iam; also, even) is more powerful than quoque (also) and usually precedes the emphatic word, when quoque follows it.


Etiam, even (now), yet, still, exaggerates (heightens), and also generally precedes the word to which that belongs. (Gildersleeve"s grammar, p. 301)

A Grammar of the Language (where, as well as speaking that the emphatic duty of etiam, that is likewise compared come et):

Etiam and also quoque space in for this reason far different in their meaning, the etiam, in the very first place, has a more comprehensive extent 보다 quoque, because that it contains likewise the idea of our "even;" and, secondly, etiam adds a new circumstance, vice versa, quoque denotes the enhancement of a thing of a comparable kind. Thus etiam is properly offered to affix propositions. This difference seems to be appropriately expressed in stating that etiam is "and farther," and also quoque "and so, also." as in this path quoque refers to a solitary word, It constantly follows the word; etiam, in similar cases, is generally placed before it, however when the connects propositions its place is arbitrary. Et, too, is occasionally used in the sense of "also," in classical prose; e.g., Curt., iii., 31, non errasti, mater, nam et hic Alexander est; Cic., de Legg.

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, ii., 16, quod et nunc multis in fanis fit, because that nunc quoque; in Verr., iv., 61, simul et verebar; and also v., l, simul et de illo vulnere — multa dixit; and often non modo — sed et; e.g., Cic., in Verr., i., 1, non modo Romae, sed et apud exteras nationes; Nepos, Thrasyb., 1, non solum princeps, sed et solus bellum indixit. (See Bremi"s remark on this passage, who claims that sed et is not merely "but also," but always "but even." ) however passages the this sort are not very numerous, and also not constantly certain, for the MSS. Usually have etiam, so that this use of et in prose (for poets can not be taken right into account) should at the very least be very much limited, and also it have to not be offered to that degree in which modern-day charline-picon.comists use it. (Zumpt, et al, A Grammar the the Language, pg. 253)

The foregoing is also interesting in that, when the author speaks the the an interpretation of etiam together "and farther", he seems to be trying to combine the idea the still with that of even. It"s together if to say the the associate etiam takes us still farther come the suggest of emphasis.