A brain herniation, or cerebral herniation, wake up when brain tissue, blood, and also cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) move from their normal place inside the skull. The condition is usually resulted in by ede from a head injury, stroke, bleeding, or mind tumor. A mind herniation is a clinical emergency and requires immediate medical attention. It’s frequently fatal if no treated best away.
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A mind herniation can be divide by where the brain tissue has actually shifted. There space three main varieties of brain herniation:Subfalcine. The brain tissue move underneath a membrane known as the falx cerebri in the center of the brain. Brain tissue ends up being pushed throughout to the other side. This is the most common kind of mind herniation.Transtentorial herniation. This type of brain herniation have the right to be further damaged down right into two types:Ascending transtentorial herniation. The cerebellum and the brainstem relocate upward through a notch in a membrane called the tentorium cerebelli.Cerebellar tonsillar. The cerebellar tonsils relocate downward with the foramen magnum, a natural opening at the basic of the skull whereby the spinal cord connects come the brain.
A mind herniation can also occur v a hole that was developed previously during surgery.
A brain herniation is thought about a severe emergency. Signs and also symptoms may include:dilated pupilsheadachedrowsinessdifficulty concentratinghigh blood pressureloss the reflexesseizurescardiac arrestloss that consciousnesscoma
A brain herniation is commonly the result of swelling in the brain. The swelling puts push on brain tissues (referred to as enhanced intracranial pressure), resulting in the tissue to be forced away from its common positon.
The most common reasons of a mind herniation include:brain hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain)
Other factors for an increase in push in the skull include:brain surgery
People with brain tumors or blood vessel problems, such as an aneurysm, space at a higher risk of having a mind herniation. In addition, any task or lifestyle choice that puts you at threat for a head injury can likewise increase your hazard of a mind herniation.
Treatment is aimed in ~ relieving the swelling and pressure inside the brain that is bring about the brain to herniate from one compartment come another. Treatment will be vital to save a who life.
To minimize swelling and also pressure, treatment may involve:surgery to eliminate a tumor, hematoma (blood clot), or abscesssurgery to place a drainpipe called a ventriculostomy v a hole in the skull to remove fluidsosmotic treatment or diuretics (medications the remove fluid from the body) to pull fluid out that the mind tissue, such as mannitol or hypertonic salinecorticosteroids to mitigate swelling
While the reason of the mind herniation is gift addressed, the human being being treated may additionally receive:oxygena tube placed in their airway to support breathingsedationmedications to manage seizuresantibiotics come treat one abscess or to avoid infection
In addition, a human being with a mind herniation will need close monitoring through tests such as:blood tests
If not treated appropriate away, the activity of brain tissue have the right to impair crucial structures in the body.
Complications of brain herniation include:brain deathpermanent brain damagedeath
The outlook counts on the kind and severity the the injury that led to the herniation and where in the mind the herniation occurs. A mind herniation can reduced off the blood supply to the brain. Because that this reason, the will most likely be fatal if no treated promptly. Even with treatment, a mind herniation deserve to lead come serious, permanent problems in the brain, or death.
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A mind herniation is taken into consideration a medical emergency. Friend should call 911 or go to the emergency room automatically if a human being with a head injury or mind tumor becomes much less alert or disoriented, has a seizure, or becomes unconscious.
Medically the review by Seunggu Han, M.D. — written by Jacquelyn Cafasso — updated on September 18, 2018