How real fax equipments workWhat happens within a fax machine?Fax groupsPros and also cons of fax machinesA brief background of faxFind the end more

## Imagine you"re a fax machine...You are watching: Do you send a fax face up or down

Suppose you have an immediate contract you desire me to authorize andyou need to obtain it come me as easily as possible. You might mail it,of course, however that will certainly take at least a job to with me and also anotherday for me come return it. You can use a courier—but, uneven we live nearone another, we"re still talking about a come back time the hours. Oryou might send the contract down the phone v a fax maker in aminute or so.

Let"s imagine for a minute that fax devices haven"t beeninvented, but you still want to usage the phone. Suppose you need totransmit a one-page document to me. What have the right to you do? Let"s do theproblem really easy. Let"s speak the paper can be either a totallyblack web page or a completely white one. Currently transmitting the record isreally easy. You merely pick up her phone, dial mine number, wait forme to answer, and then say one of two people "black" or "white".

Okay, let"s do the difficulty a little harder. Expect the record isa solitary page separated into four squares and also each that the four areas canbe either black or white. Again, it"s fairly easy for you to transmitthis document. Friend ring me up and just to speak "Black black color whiteblack", "White black white white" or whatever—and i caninstantly recreate the record in mine mind"s eye at the other end.

Now let"s do the trouble much harder. You have tosend come me whole page extended in black-and-white,computer-printed words. Actually, this problem isn"t as hard as itlooks. All you need to do is divide the page into thousands that gridsquares and then read out, from left come right and from peak to bottom,whether each square is black or white. Intend I"m sitting at theother finish of the phone through a item of paper ruled through an identicalgrid that squares. As you read out "black", "white", "white","black", I simply need to the shade in every the black squares through apencil and skip the white ones. By the time you gain to the bottom ofthe page, my shaded-in web page will look similar to yours. If we make thesquares little enough, so each one is contempt bigger 보다 a pinhead,I will certainly magically finish up with an exact, readable copy of her page.Simply speaking, this is how fax makers work.

## How actual fax makers work

Well, okay, it"s not specifically how lock work! A fax machine is designed come both send and also receive records so it has a sending component and areceiving part. The sending part is a little bit like a computer system scanner, through a CCD (charged-coupled device)that scans only one line of a file at a time, and only in black and also white.Crudely simplified, that looks at every line separately, detectsthe black color areas and the white areas, and also transmits one sort ofelectric pulse under the phone line torepresent black and another to stand for white (just prefer saying "black" and "white",in fact). The phone heat transmits this information nearly instantlyto a fax maker at the various other end. That receives the electric pulsesand offers them to manage a printer.If the receiving fax hears "black", that draws a tiny black dot top top the page; if it hearswhite, the moves follow me slightly, leave a white room instead. Ittakes around a minute or so come transmit a single page of writing (or acomplex drawing) in this clumsy but an extremely systematic way.

## What happens within a fax machine?

Ever wonder what go on inside your machine when you send or get a fax?

To send a fax, you feeding the page right into the entry slot and also it"s pulled in in between several bag of rollers.Larger fax machines have actually built-in paper feeders that instantly feed in multiple pages from a stack, so girlfriend don"t need to stand in ~ the maker feeding in pages one in ~ a time.As the file moves down, a bright light shines onto it. White locations of the web page reflecta lot of light; black locations reflect tiny or none.The light mirrors off the page into a light-detecting CCD (charged-coupled device).The CCD transforms the analog sample of black and also white areas on the pageinto a numeric (digital) sample of binary zeros and also ones and passes the information to an electronic circuit.The circuit sends out the digital information down the telephone heat to the fax machine at the receiving end.When you receive a fax, the same circuit takes incoming digital information from the call line and also routes it come a built-in printer.In a typical personal fax machine, paper is traction from a big roll within the machine. (In a larger office fax machine, that usually comes from a plain-paper hopper, comparable to the one in a laser printer.)The heat (heat-based) printer, activate by the circuit, reproduces the incoming fax ~ above the record as it move past.An automatically blade cut the page and also the published fax emerges from the output slot.You have the right to see the there room really 2 separate devices in one: a fax-sender and a fax-receiver. As soon as you usea fax device to make rapid "photocopies" of documents, the 2 machines link up together: rather of sendinga fax down the call line, the circuit reroutes the scanned data straight to the printer so you obtain a copyof your original document.

### Inside a actual fax

To see just how it"s all set up in a actual machine, take a look in ~ this patent drawing that reflects the layout ofa typical Ricoh fax native the 1980s.

Artwork: 1) throughout scanning, the original document feeds through a series of rollers (green)along the orange-dotted route on the left, previous the glowing scanning light (yellow, 48). The light mirrors the black and also white surface of the record along the yellow and also black dotted optical path right into the scanner (red). The CCD (grey, 36) digitizes the picture ready for transmission. When faxes are received, the thermal press (blue, 29) reproduces lock on document feeding with from the large roll in thecenter. A document slicing system (green, 27) cuts the roll into single sheets together it passes by.Artwork from us Patent 4630123: Compact facsimile machine by Shigeru Kadomatsu, Ricoh Co. Ltd, 16 December 1986, courtesy of united state Patent and also Trademark Office.

## Fax groups

Photo: just how a fax maker would transmit a picture of the Mona Lisa. Every component of the photo becomes either black color or white. Not shades that gray, but crude, binary black or white. You can still identify the picture, yet much of the detail has to be lost. This problem much much less for text records than because that images.

Fax makers come in three simple kinds referred to as group 1, group 2,and group 3. The team number is, extensively speaking, a measure of howfast the maker can send and also receive: a group 1 an equipment sends andreceives at the slowest rate (about 6 minutes every page), team 2can regulate a web page in about three minutes, and group 3 zips along ata minute or less per page. When a fax machine very first dials anotherfax machine, there"s a quick (typically 15–30 second) duration ofhandshaking where the machines agree top top the speed they will certainly usefor the transmission. It"s always the slower machine that governs thespeed so, also if you have a quick group 3 machine, it will still workat the slowest feasible speed if you"re sending out faxes to (orreceiving faxes from) a group 1 maker at the other finish of the line.

## Pros and also cons the fax machines

Another border is the crudeness the faxed documents. A faxmachine senses areas of black and white by shining a shining lightonto the page it"s transmitting and using photocells(light-sensitive electronic components)to measure up the lightreflected ago again. The photocells transmit when they watch white areasand don"t transmit as soon as they view black. In other words, they can"tdistinguish shades of gray (or what printers contact "half-tones").That means a photo or artwork sent out by fax will lose much that itsdetail and may also become completely unrecognizable at the otherend.

See more: The Legend Of Zelda Link To The Past Book, House Of Books

For every these reasons, many civilization now choose to send files asemail attachments. They"re quicker and much more convenient, you deserve to printthem the end (or not, together you wish) on kind paper, and you deserve to send andreceive things in full-color and shades that gray. Perhaps many importantly,the papers you get by email are usually digital papers that girlfriend can edit in other ways,whereas a fax is basically an analog thing—and every you can do isread that or paper it (if you"re very lucky, you might be able to scan itand turn it right into an editable document).Some telephone companies likewise offer fax-to-email solutions where you"re allocated aunique telephone number. If someone faxes girlfriend on that number, thecompany receive the fax for you at a central computer complex,converts it into an image paper (such as JPG or TIFF) or PDF, and also thenforwards it on come you by email. In much the exact same way, most computersthathave a dialup (fax) modem can additionally sendfaxes to people really easilywithout extra equipment. So, date though it may be, fax technologyis probably right here to stay for a few more year yet!

## A brief history of fax

Photo: back in the 1960s, meteorologists began using early fax machines, favor this Muirhead Mufax, to receive weather charts from satellites v a radio-broadcast system dubbed Automatic snapshot Transmission (APT). Picture courtesy the NASA on the Commons.1840: Samuel Morse (1791–1872) is granted a patent for a simple electric telegraph the revolutionizes international communication (US Patent 1647: development in the setting of interacting information by signal by the application of electromagnetism).1843–1850: scots Alexander Bain (1811–1877) develops two different types of primitive document-sending machines, based upon the telegraph: one is electromechanical, when the second uses a mixture of chemical and also electrical technology. Bain"s ideas are further improved by englishman Frederick Bakewell(1800–1869), who introduces the idea that rotating cylinders—still provided in fax devices to this day.1865: Giovanni Caselli (1815–1891), one Italian physicist, establishes a an ext practical electromechanical technique of sending documents down telegraph wires. That calls his invention a Pantelegraph, a portmanteau of "pantograph" and also "telegraph," due to the fact that it duplicates documents (using a pantograph) and also sends castle by telegraph.1876: Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922) records his telephone patent (US Patent 174,465: Telegraphy) top top February 14, 1876. Whether he deserves every the credit for inventing the call is still disputed, but he certainlyhelps it come become vital piece of worldwide communication technology.1920s: west Union, RCA, and Associated Press construct rivalwirephoto technologies, which enable photographs come be sent down ordinary phone lines.1930s: Telex (a means of sending text messages down telephone lines between teleprinter unitsthat look favor oversized typewriters) is pioneered in Berlin by Siemens and also the German Reich mail service, later spreading to Europe and the remainder of the world.1964: Xerox offers its endure inventing photocopiers (originally referred to as xerography machines) to develop a document-transmitting system called Long street Xerography (LDX).1964: Meteorologists begin using Automatic picture Transmission (APT) to obtain charts indigenous a weather satellite on fax machines. The first broadcast, from the Nimbus-1 satellite, is on august 28, 1964.Late 1960s/early 1970s: thanks to more innovations by pioneers such as Xerox, the first self-contained fax machines start to appear, though they"re quiet relatively huge (the size of a large modern, office photocopier) and also expensive.1980: Canon, the Japanese electronics company, announces its very first compact fax machine, the FAX-601. During the 1980s, affordable, personal fax machines, virtually all of them made in Japan, strength the fax revolution, conveniently making telex obsolete.1990s: The rapid development of the Internet means millions of civilization suddenly have accessibility to tiny fast modems, which allow an ordinary computer to send and receive documents as faxes.2020: The UK"s National wellness Service, which to be still making use of an approximated 9,000 fax devices as newly as 2018, is directed to switch to more modern-day technology.