8.8 complete Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), additionally known as parenteral nutrition (PN) is a form of nutritional assistance given completely via the bloodstream, intravenously v an IV pump. TPN administers proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and also minerals. It intends to prevent and also restore nutritional deficits, permitting bowel remainder while providing adequate caloric intake and essential nutrients, and also removing antigenic mucosal stimuli (Perry et al., 2014).

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TPN might be momentary or permanent nutritional therapy, and may be administered on acute medical floors and in critical care areas. The caloric needs of every patient are individualized according to the level of stress, organ failure, and also percentage of ideal body weight. TPN is supplied with patients that cannot orally ingest or digest nutrition (Triantafillidis & Papalois, 2014). TPN may be administered as peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) or via a main line, relying on the components and osmolality. Central veins room usually the veins of choice because over there is less risk that thrombophlebitis and also vessel damage (Chowdary & Reddy, 2010). Follow to Chowdary & Reddy (2010), candidates for TPN are:

Patients through paralyzed or nonfunctional GI tract, or conditions that need bowel rest, such as little bowel obstruction, ulcerative colitis, or pancreatitis
Patients who have had nothing by mouth (NPO) for seven days or longer
Critically ok patients
Babies with an immature gastrointestinal device or congenital malformations
Patients v chronic or extreme malnutrition, or chronic diarrhea or vomiting with a need for surgical procedure or chemotherapyPatients in hyperbolic states, such as burns, sepsis, or trauma

TPN is made up of 2 components: amino acid/dextrose solution and also a lipid emulsion systems (see figure 8.9). That is ordered by a physician, in consultation v a dietitian, relying on the patient’s metabolic needs, clinical history, and also blood work. The amino acid/dextrose solution is usually in a big volume bag (1,000 to 2,000 ml), and also can be typical or custom-made. It is regularly yellow in colour due to the multivitamins that contains. The ingredients noted on the bag have to be shown by the health care provider hanging the IV bag. The solution may also include medication, such as insulin and heparin. The amino acid/dextrose equipment is reviewed and changed each day based upon the patient’s blood work. Lipid emulsions are ready in 100 to 250 ml bags or glass bottles and also contain the crucial fatty acids that are milky in appearance. At times, the lipid emulsion might be added to the amino acid/dextrose solution. That is then called 3 in 1 or total nutrition admixture (Perry et al., 2014).

TPN is ready by a pharmacy, whereby the calories are calculated using a formula, and is usually mixed for a 24-hour constant infusion to avoid vascular trauma and metabolic instability (North York Hospital, 2013). TPN orders have to be reviewed each day, for this reason that changes in electrolytes or the acid-base balance can be addressed as necessary without wasting costly TPN services (Chowdary & Reddy, 2010).

Figure 8.9 types of TPN (amino acids and lipids)Figure 8.10 TPN tubing v special filter

TPN is not compatible with any other kind of IV equipment or medication and also must be administered by itself. TPN need to be administered using an EID (IV pump), and also requires special IV filter tubing (see number 8.10) for the amino acids and also lipid emulsion to reduce the threat of corpuscle entering the patient. Agency policy may allow amino acids and lipid emulsions to be infused together over the filters. TPN tubing will certainly not have any access ports and also must be changed according to firm policy. Always review company policy ~ above setup and also equipment compelled to med TPN.

A physician might order a full fluid entry (TFI) for the amount of liquid to it is in infused per hour to prevent fluid overload in patient receiving TPN. The is essential to keep track of all the fluids infusing (IV fluids, IV medications, and TPN) in order to avoid liquid overload (Perry et al., 2014). Do no abruptly discontinue TPN (especially in patients who space on insulin) because this may bring about hypoglycemia. If for every little thing reason the TPN equipment runs out while awaiting an additional bag, hang D5W at the same price of infusion while waiting for the brand-new TPN bag to arrive (North York Hospital, 2013). Execute not attain blood samples or main venous press readings indigenous the same port as TPN infusions. To stop severe electrolyte and other metabolic abnormalities, the infusion price of TPN is increased gradually, beginning at a price of no much more than 50% the the energy requirements (Mehanna, Nankivell, Moledina, & Travis, 2009).

Complications related to TPN

There are plenty of complications pertained to the administration of TPN (Perry et al., 2014). Table 8.8 perform potential complications, rationale, and interventions.

Table 8.8 TPN Complications, Rationale, and Interventions


 Rationale and also Interventions

Catheter-related bloodstream epidemic (CR-BSI), additionally known as sepsisCR-BSI, i beg your pardon starts in ~ the hub connection, is the spread of bacteria v the bloodstream. There’s an boosted risk of CR-BSI with TPN, as result of the high dextrose concentration that TPN. Symptoms include tachycardia, hypotension, elevated or decreased temperature, raised breathing, lessened urine output, and disorientation.

Interventions: strict adherence come aseptic technique with insertion, care, and also maintenance; avoid hyperglycemia to stop infection complications; carefully monitor critical signs and also temperature. IV antibiotic treatment is required. Screen white blood cell count and also patient for malaise. Change IV tubing typically as per company policy (usually every 24 hours).

Localized epidemic at exit or entrance siteDue to negative aseptic method during insertion, care, or maintain of main line or peripheral line

Interventions: use strict aseptic method during insertion, care, and maintenance. Generally assess CVC site for redness, tenderness, or drainage. Notify health treatment provider of any type of signs and also symptoms the infection.

PneumothoraxA pneumothorax occurs as soon as the pointer of the catheter enters the pleural an are during insertion, leading to the lung to collapse. Symptoms incorporate sudden chest pain, an obstacle breathing, reduced breath sounds, cessation of common chest movement on affected side, and tachycardia.

Interventions: use oxygen, notify physician. Patience will call for removal of main line and feasible chest pipe insertion.

Air embolismAn air embolism may happen if IV tubing disconnects and also is open to air, or if part of catheter system is open up or eliminated without being clamped. Symptoms incorporate sudden respiratory distress, reduced oxygen saturation levels, shortness the breath, coughing, chest pain, and decreased blood pressure.

Interventions: Make sure all relations are clamped and also closed. Clamp catheter, position patient in left Trendelenburg position, speak to health treatment provider, and administer oxygen as needed.

HyperglycemiaRelated come sudden rise in glucose after recent malnourished state. After starvation, glucose intake suppresses gluconeogenesis by causing the release of insulin and also the suppression the glycogen. Extreme glucose may lead to hyperglycemia, with osmotic diuresis, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and ketoacidosis. Excess glucose additionally leads to lipogenesis (again resulted in by insulin stimulation). This may cause fatty liver, increased CO2 production, hypercapnea, and also respiratory failure.

Interventions: screen blood sugar commonly QID (four times per day), climate less frequently when blood sugars room stable. Follow agency policy for glucose security with TPN. Be alert to transforms in dextrose levels in amino acids and also the addition/removal that insulin to TPN solution.

Refeeding syndromeRefeeding syndrome is resulted in by fast refeeding ~ a duration of malnutrition, which leader to metabolic and hormonal transforms characterized by electrolyte move (decreased phosphate, magnesium, and also potassium in serum levels) that may cause widespread moving dysfunction. Phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, glucose, vitamin, sodium, nitrogen, and fluid imbalances can be life-threatening. High-risk patients include the chronically undernourished and those with small intake for more than 10 days. Patients through dysphagia space at higher risk. The syndrome usually occurs 24 come 48 hours after refeeding has started. The change of water, glucose, potassium, phosphate, and magnesium ago into the cell may bring about muscle weakness, respiratory failure, paralysis, coma, cranial nerve palsies, and also rebound hypoglycemia.

Interventions: price of TPN must be based on the severity the undernourishment because that moderate- come high-risk patients. TPN need to be initiated slowly and titrated up for four to seven days. Every patients call for close surveillance of electrolytes (daily for one week, then usually 3 times/week). Constantly follow company policy. Blood work may be much more frequent depending on the severity of the malnourishment.

Fluid overfill or pulmonary edemaSigns and symptoms include fine crackles in reduced lung fields or throughout lung fields, hypoxia (decreased O2 sats).

Interventions: educate primary health treatment provider regarding change in condition. Patient may require IV medication, such together Lasix to remove excess fluids. A diminish or discontinuation the IV fluids may likewise occur. Progressive head the bed to enhance breathing and apply O2 because that oxygen saturation less than 92% or together per agency protocol. Monitor intake and output. Pulmonary edema might be an ext common in the elderly, young, and also patients through renal or cardiac conditions.

Data source: Chowdary & Reddy, 2010; Mehanna et al., 2009; O’Connor, Hanly, Francis, Keane, & McNamara, 2013; Perry et al., 2014
A patient on TPN must have actually blood occupational monitored carefully to protect against the symptom of refeeding syndrome. Blood work might be ordered as often as every six hours upon initiation of TPN. Most hospitals will have a TPN protocol to follow for blood work. Common blood work includes CBC (complete blood count), electrolytes (with one-of-a-kind attention come magnesium, potassium, and phosphate), liver enzymes (total and also direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase , aspartate aminotransferase , alkaline phosphatase , gamma-glutamyl transferase , complete protein, albumin), and renal role tests (creatinine and urea). Compare day-to-day values come baseline values, and also investigate and report any kind of rapid changes in any type of values (Chowdary & Reddy, 2010; Perry et al., 2014). Table 8.9 outlines a arrangement of treatment when a patience is receiving TPN.

Table 8.9 evaluate of a Patient with TPN


 Additional Information

CVC/peripheral IV lineIntravenous line should remain patent, free from infection.

Dextrose in TPN increases risk of infection. Assess because that signs and also symptoms of epidemic at website (redness, tenderness, discharge) and systemically (fever, increased WBC, malaise). Dressing need to be dry and also intact.

Daily or biweekly weightsMonitor for proof of edema or liquid overload. Over time, dimensions will reflect load loss/gain native caloric intake or fluid retention.
Capillary or serum blood glucose levelsQID (4 time a day) capillary blood glucose initially to screen glycemic control, then mitigate monitoring as soon as blood sugars space stable or as per agency policy. May be done an ext frequently if glycemic control is difficult. Indicates metabolic tolerance to dextrose in TPN solution and also patient’s glycemic status.
Monitor intake and outputMonitor and also record every eight hours or together per agency policy. Monitor for signs and symptoms of liquid overload (excessive load gain) by completing a cardiovascular and also respiratory assessment. Evaluate intakes such as IV (intravenous fluids), PO (oral intake), NG (nasogastric pipe feeds). Assess outputs: NG (removed gastric content through the nasogastic tube), fistula drainage, BM (liquid bowel movements), colostomy/ileostomy drainage, closeup of the door suction drainage devices (Penrose or Jackson-Pratt drainage) and chest pipe drainage.
Daily come weekly blood workReview lab values for increases and decreases the end of typical range. Lab values incorporate CBC, electrolytes, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, glucose, albumin, BUN (blood urea nitrogen), creatinine, triglycerides, and also transferrin.
Mouth careMost patients will certainly be NPO. Appropriate oral care is compelled as per firm policy. Some patients may have a diet order.
Vital signsVital indications are much more frequently monitored initially in patients through TPN.
Data source: BCIT, 2015a; Perry et al., 2014
TPN may be administered in the hospital or in a home setting. Generally, patients receiving TPN are rather ill and may require a prolonged stay in the hospital. The management of TPN must follow strictly adherence come aseptic technique, and includes gift alert because that complications, as countless of the patients will certainly have altered defence instrument and complicated conditions (Perry et al., 2014). To provide TPN, follow the steps in Checklist 76.

Checklist 76: TPN Administration
Disclaimer: Always review and also follow her hospital policy regarding this details skill.
Safety considerations: Compare the patient’s baseline crucial signs; electrolyte, glucose, and triglyceride levels; weight; and fluid intake and also output v treatment values, and also investigate any kind of rapid readjust in such values.To identify signs of infection early, be conscious of the patient’s current temperature range.Use strictly aseptic technique when caring for main venous catheters and also PICC lines.Do not use TPN systems if it has coalesced, as shown by development of a thick, thick layer the fat droplets on its surface. If the solution appears abnormal in any type of way, request a replacement from the pharmacy.Never shot to catch up through a delayed infusion.
Steps Additional Information
1. Testimonial physician’s orders and also compare come MAR and also content label on TPN systems bag and for rate of infusion. Every component the the TPN solution must be confirmed with the physician’s orders.Check date and also time of last TPN tube change, lab values, and also expiry date of TPN to prevent medication error.

Assess CVC, WBC, and patient for malaise.

Medications may be included to the TPN.

Ensure the rate of infusion is proved in the doctor’s order each time brand-new TPN bag is initiated.

2. Collection supplies, prepare TPN solution, and prime IV tubing with filter together per firm protocol. TPN needs special IV tubing through a filter.Generally, new TPN pipe is compelled every 24 hours to prevent catheter-related bacteremia. Follow company policy.

Ensure tubing is primed appropriately to stop air embolism.

TPN tubing with special filter
3. Execute hand hygiene, recognize yourself, and identify patient using two patient identifiers. To compare the MAR to the patient’s wristband. Explain the procedure to the patient.Hand hygiene prevents the spread of microorganisms.

Proper identification stays clear of patient errors.

Compare MAR to patient wristband
4. Complete all security checks for CVC together per company policy.This adheres come safety plans related to main line care.
5. If transforming TPN solution, stop EID and remove old TPN administration set. Disinfect relationships and adjust IV tubing together per agency policy.

If starting TPN for the first time, flush and disinfect CVC lumens as per agency policy.

Change TPN IV tubing together per company policy. Usage strict aseptic an approach with IV alters as patients through high dextrose solutions are at higher risk of occurring infections.
6. Insert new TPN solution and IV tubing into EID.EID should be provided with all TPN administration.
7. Start TPN infusion price as per medical professional orders.Prevents medicine errors.
8. Discard old offers as per firm protocol, and perform hand hygiene.These actions prevent the spread of microorganisms.
9. Monitor for signs and symptoms the complications pertained to TPN.See Table 8.8 for list of complications pertained to TPN.
10. Finish daily assessments and also monitoring because that patient ~ above TPN together per agency policy.See daily and weekly assessments in Table 8.9. Circulation rate might be monitored hourly.
11. Record the procedure in the patient chart as per company policy.

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Note time once TPN bag is hung, number of bags, and also rate that infusion, evaluate of CVC site and also verification of patency, status of dressing, an essential signs and weight, customer tolerance come TPN, client response come therapy, and understanding the instructions.
Data source: phibìc York Hospital, 2013; Perry et al., 2014